Melody extraction from polyphonic audio based on particle filter
Seokhwan Jo and Chang D. Yoo
This paper considers a particle filter based algorithm to extract melody from a polyphonic audio in the short-time Fourier transforms (STFT) domain. The extraction is focused on overcoming the difficulties due to harmonic / percussive sound interferences, possibility of octave mismatch, and dynamic variation in melody. The main idea of the algorithm is to consider probabilistic relations between melody and polyphonic audio. Melody is assumed to follow a Markov process, and the framed segments of polyphonic audio are assumed to be conditionally independent given the parameters that represent the melody. The melody parameters are estimated using sequential importance sampling (SIS) which is a conventional particle filter method. In this paper, the likelihood and state transition are defined to overcome the aforementioned difficulties. The SIS algorithm relies on sequential importance density, and this density is designed using multiple pitches which are estimated by a simple multi-pitch extraction algorithm. Experimental results show that the considered algorithm outperforms other famous melody extraction algorithms in terms of the raw pitch accuracy (RPA) and the raw chroma accuracy (RCA).